Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), was an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy. Although Hobbes was a strong believer in the right of sovereigns to rule absolutely, Hobbes developed the political philosophy that laid the foundation for theories like social contract theory that have formed the backbone of Western democracy. Hobbes also wrote about history, mathematics, physics, ethics and philosophy, writing at length about human nature and the strength of self-interest, often referred to as materialism.
Along with Leviathan, which expounds at length upon the structure of society and legitimate government, Hobbes authored De Cive, or On the Citizen. Anticipating the arguments he would make in Leviathan about tying social contract theory to an absolute sovereign and calling upon legitimate government to protect the natural rights of its people, De Cive covers Libertas (liberty), Imperium (dominion), and Religio (religion). In the first part, it describes man’s natural condition, dealing with the natural laws; in the second, the necessity of establishing a stable government is indicated. Finally, in the third part, the most important statements are backed up theologically.